Cyber Blog

A Blog by Christopher
This short introduction gives an overview of the essential components of a computer system - hardware and software



Task: Execution of program instructions of a machine program
The process is strictly sequential - The execution of an instruction is not started until the execution of the previous instruction has been completed
However, there are instructions that perform jumps, branches or repetitions or call subroutines


Task: Temporary storage of the program and the intermediate result
Working memory also includes the software (thus also the operating system)
Extremely fast access (RAM)
Individual memory cells have their own address
Several memory cells can be combined into one memory word

Parallel Computer

Multi-core processors have several subunits (cores), again sometimes more subunits (threads), which can execute program code independently of each other
High-performance computers have over hundreds or even thousands of processors
Specially adapted software is required to distribute computationally intensive processes to several processors / cores / threads

Input and Output Devices

Input devices are all devices through which information can be supplied to a computer so that interaction with computer programs is possible
Microphone / Keyboard / Computer mouse / Webcam / Scanner / Sensor

An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment which converts information into human-readable form
Monitor/Display / Speaker / Printer


Software is defined as all non-physical components of a computersystem. Programs (software) contain machine readable commands. They can be written in various higher programming languages, e.g. C++ or Java, and are translated into machine programs

System Software and System related Software

Operating system and driver software as application-independent software that enables or supports the execution of application software (e.g. Microsoft Windows, Apple macOS, Linux)
Security software, editors and compilers as supporting software, i.e. programs that assist in development, maintenance or provide a non-application-specific service (e.g. Kaspersky, AVAST, C++ Compiler, Notepad++)

Application Software

Word processing software (e.g. Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer)
Spreadsheet analysis software (e.g. Microsoft Excel, LibreOffice Calc)
Presentation software (e.g. Microsoft Power Point, Keynote)
Database software (e.g. Microsoft Access, Oracle Database, MySQL)